Patient Information

Urological diseases are widespread. The more you know, the earlier you can take action.

For reliable patient information that incorporates scientific evidence, the expertise of healthcare professionals, and the patient perspective to help you make an informed decision, please visit the EAU Patient Office website.

Found below are definitions of urological diseases that Urology Week has addressed over the years. This year, Urology Week will focus on continence health.

1) Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is any involuntary or unwanted loss of urine. It is considered a medical condition if it happens regularly. The risk of developing incontinence increases with age, but younger people may also develop it. Incontinence is common and causes distress and embarrassment. Many people go without treatment because they feel uncomfortable discussing incontinence with their doctor.

If incontinence is frequent or affects your quality of life, it is important to seek medical advice. In most cases, incontinence can be treated or cured with various treatment options. These include pelvic floor exercises, drug treatment, or surgery.

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2) Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is the growth of abnormal tissue (a tumour) in your bladder. It is the sixth most commonly occurring cancer in men and the 17th most commonly occurring cancer in women. Over half a million men and women are diagnosed with bladder cancer on a yearly basis.

There a several stages of bladder cancer. In the early stage of bladder cancer, the tumour has not yet grown in the muscle of the bladder. When a tumour does affect the muscles of the bladder, it can also spread to other organs. This type of bladder cancer is more difficult to treat.

Blood in urine is the most common symptom when a tumour is present. Finding cancer early, particularly bladder cancer, is crucial as it often allows for more treatment options and is very well curable. The goal of  Urology Week is to make potential patients aware to take blood in urine serious and to seek medical advice.

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3) Benign Prostatic Enlargement

The prostate is a gland located in the lower urinary tract, under the bladder and around the urethra. Only men have a prostate. It produces the fluid which carries semen. The prostate has smooth muscles which help to push out the semen during ejaculation. A healthy prostate is about the size of a large walnut and has a volume of 15-25ml. The prostate slowly grows as men grow older.

Benign prostatic enlargement is a common condition. It is related to hormonal changes which happen as men grow older. Prostate diseases can be very worrying but it is important to know that BPE is not prostate cancer. BPE does not become prostate cancer, even if it is left untreated. However, both benign prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer may develop with age. Some people may have both diseases.

If you’re experiencing BPE symptoms, you could be at risk. To understand your symptoms you can take a short test. The test is designed to provide you with insight into the severity of your potential BPE symptoms. It’s based on the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) survey used by doctors around the world to assess men like you. It doesn’t attempt to provide medical advice or a diagnosis. It’s simply a tool to help you kick-start the conversation about BPE symptoms with your doctor. Once you’ve completed the test, you’ll be able to print the questions and your answers – so you can bring a copy to your next doctor’s appointment.

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4) Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumour in the prostate. There are several stages of prostate cancer. Most prostate cancers develop slowly and do not cause symptoms. Fast-growing prostate cancer is less common. The risk of getting prostate cancer increases with age. The average age for diagnosis of prostate cancer is 69.

Because of the development in diagnostic tools and longer life expectancy, more prostate cancers are now detected. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in elderly men in Europe. The survival rate for prostate cancer in Europe is relatively high and is still going up.

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5) Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common male sexual disorder. It is the inability to get or keep an erection that allows for satisfying sexual activity. It can happen occasionally or regularly, with or without any clear reason. Some men with ED are not able to get an erection at all.

ED is not a life-threatening disorder, but it can have a negative impact on your quality of life and that of your partner. ED is a common condition in men of all ages and ethnicities. The risk of having ED increases with age. There is a wide variety of contributing causes.

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6) Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is a growth called a tumour that starts in the testicle and can sometimes spread to other parts of the body. There are two main types of a testicular tumour, seminoma and non-seminoma. Seminomas can grow in men at any age but are less aggressive. Non-seminomas usually affect younger men and are more likely to grow and spread quickly.

Testicular cancer is usually treated with surgery. The testicle must be removed (orchiectomy) to remove the cancer. The tissue may be examined during surgery to confirm the diagnosis and stage. Additional surgery, drug treatment (chemotherapy), or radiation therapy also may be needed.

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